Westchester Demographic - Definitions
Terms Used in Demographic Data
2-Year College Degree
4-Year College Degree
Percentage of population (over the age of 25) with a Bachelor Degree or another recognized 4 year degree.
Anticipated Future Job Growth
Average Household Size
Average Income Per Capita
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
Cost of Living Index
Expenditures per Student
Health Cost Index
High School Graduates
Home Appreciation Percent
Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building, and which have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who share living arrangements, unless there are nine or more persons unrelated to the person in charge, in which case the living space is classified as group quarters. Occupants of group quarters (dormitories, barracks, institutions, etc., excluding any staff quarters that satisfy the housing-unit criteria) are by definition not household members.
Market basket - Consumer Price Index
The median is a better indicator than the average, because a few values on either end do not effect the median value.
Median Age of Homes
Median Home Value
Median Household Income
Not In Labor Force
People Per Household
Percent Commuting by Bus or Train
Percent Commuting by Car
Percent Commuting by Carpool
Percent of Vacant Homes
Percent Owning Home
Percent Renting Home
Percent Working at Home
Physicians per capita
Property Crime Risk
Recent Job Growth
Students per Guidance Counselor
Students per Librarian
Students per Teacher
Violent Crime Risk
Environment & Topography
What is Air Quality and Air Pollution?
The AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act: ground-level ozone, particle pollution (also known as particulate matter), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. For each of these pollutants, EPA has established national air quality standards to protect public health. Ground-level ozone and airborne particles are the two pollutants that pose the greatest threat to human health in this country.
How Does the AQI Work?
An AQI value of 100 generally corresponds to the national air quality standard for the pollutant, which is the level EPA has set to protect public health. AQI values below 100 are generally thought of as satisfactory. When AQI values are above 100, air quality is considered to be unhealthy - at first for certain sensitive groups of people, then for everyone as AQI values get higher.
Understanding the AQI
Each category corresponds to a different level of health concern. The six levels of health concern and what they mean are:
0 to 50 = Good
51 to 100 = Moderate
101 to 150 = Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
151 to 200 = Unhealthy
201 to 300 = Very Unhealthy
301 and above = Hazardous
To find your Air Quality Report:
What is Watershed Quality and Watershed Management?
The CWP provides "local governments, activists, and watershed organizations around the country with the technical tools for protecting some of the nation's most precious natural resources: our streams, lakes, and rivers." Its multidisciplinary strategy for watershed protection "encompasses watershed planning, watershed restoration, stormwater management, watershed research, better site design, education and outreach, and watershed training."
Water Quality: Wetland Acres
Non-tidal wetlands are lost due to land development, highway building, and other projects that directly impact waterways. Indirect impacts also occur when upland and nearby development redirect drainage patterns, increases surface runoff, and reduces groundwater inflows to negatively impact the hydrologic regime critical to a viable wetland environment. When surface runoff and groundwater flows to wetlands are substantially altered, many vital wetland functions can be lost.
A decline in the condition of our streams results in a reduction in biodiversity within our landscape, as more diverse fish and insect communities are reduced to a community with mostly pollutant and stress tolerant species. A decline in stream condition also generally reflects an increase in human induced impacts in a watershed that are not being adequately managed, such as increases in stormwater runoff, stream erosion and sedimentation, warming of stream temperatures from paved areas and inadequate forested buffers, pollutant loads and trash dumping. These watershed impacts reduce the aesthetic and recreational value of our natural resources, and contribute to the degradation of downstream resources. Reduced stream quality, manifested in increased sediment, nutrient, or other pollutant loadings, also impacts water supply reservoirs and treatment costs of water withdrawn from other watersheds to support public water supply needs.
The Memorandum of Agreement contains updated Watershed Rules and Regulations which are designed to ensure the continued, long-term protection of New York City’s drinking water supply and minimize, to the extent feasible, adverse impacts on the Watershed communities. The Watershed Regulations are designed to reduce current contaminants and prevent the introduction of new sources of contamination to the drinking water supply. The Watershed Regulations work in conjunction with existing federal and state regulations and provide additional regulations tailored to the watershed area itself.
What is Superfund?
Who Implements Superfund?
The 1978 discovery of toxic chemicals beneath the suburban infrastructure of Love Canal, in Niagara Falls, New York first illuminated the consequences of environmental neglect. For decades, many American businesses had disposed of hazardous waste improperly, contaminating tens of thousands of sites nationally, including nearly 250 within Region 2 alone. Accidents, spills, and leaks of hazardous materials resulted in land, water, and air that pose immediate and potential threats to public and environmental health.
Serves: New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands and 7 tribes.
Citizen reaction to these localized threats led Congress to establish the Superfund Program in 1980, an initiative designed to locate, investigate, and clean up the most hazardous sites nationwide. Superfund is officially called CERCLA, or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The EPA administers the Superfund Program in cooperation with individual states and tribal governments. Superfund constitutes a crucial environmental and economic precedent within American legislative history.
What is the UV Index?
Click on the Explore a Town banner at the top of this page.
2 or less = Low
3 to 5 = Moderate
6 to 8 = High
8 to 10 = Very High
11+ = Extreme
By taking a few simple precautions daily, you can greatly reduce your risk of sun-related illnesses.
Avoid Sun Tanning and Tanning Beds
Generously Apply Sunscreen with an SPF of at least 15
Wear Protective Clothing, Including a Hat, Sunglasses, and Full-Length Clothing
Use Extra Caution Near Water, Snow and Sand
Watch for the UV Index
Get Vitamin D Safely
Early detection of melanoma can save your life. Carefully examine ALL of your skin once a month. A new or changing mole in an adult should be evaluated by a dermatologist.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency
Mount Vernon (city) = 8.375%
New Rochelle (city) = 8.375%
White Plains (city) = 7.875%
Yonkers (city) = 8.375%
Westchester and Town/City rates are current as of 1/13/2009.
Add an additional 5% to the combined state and local sales tax rate for certain short term passenger car rentals or sales of entertainment or information services provided by telephone or telegraph which are received exclusively in an auditory manner over the telephone or telegraph.
Cost of Living Index
How does the Consumer Price Index (CPI) relate to the Cost of Living Index?
The CPI is frequently called a cost-of-living index, but it differs in important ways from a complete cost-of-living measure. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) has for some time used a cost-of-living framework in making practical decisions about questions that arise in constructing the CPI.
A cost-of-living index is a conceptual measurement goal, however, not a straightforward alternative to the CPI. A cost-of-living index would measure changes over time in the amount that consumers need to spend to reach a certain "utility level" or "standard of living."
Both the CPI and a cost-of-living index would reflect changes in the prices of goods and services, such as food and clothing, that are directly purchased in the marketplace; but a complete cost-of-living index would go beyond this to also take into account changes in other governmental or environmental factors that affect consumers' well-being. It is very difficult to determine the proper treatment of public goods, such as safety and education, and other broad concerns, such as health, water quality, and crime that would comprise a complete cost-of-living framework.
Traditionally, the CPI was considered an upper bound to a cost-of-living index in that the CPI did not reflect the changes in buying or consumption patterns that consumers would make to adjust to relative price changes. The ability to substitute means that the increase in the cost to consumers of maintaining their level of well-being tends to be somewhat less than the increase in the cost of the mix of goods and services they previously purchased.
Since January 1999, a geometric mean formula has been used to calculate most basic indexes within the CPI; in other words, the prices within most item categories (e.g., apples) are averaged using a geometric mean formula. This improvement moves the CPI somewhat closer to a cost-of-living measure, as the geometric mean formula allows for a modest amount of consumer substitution as relative prices within item categories change.
Since the geometric mean formula is used only to average prices within item categories, it does not account for consumer substitution taking place between item categories. For example, if the price of pork increases compared to those of other meats, shoppers might shift their purchases away from pork to beef, poultry, or fish. The CPI formula does not reflect this type of consumer response to changing relative prices. In 2002, as a complement to the CPI-U and CPI-W, BLS began producing a new index intended to more closely approximate a cost-of-living index by reflecting substitution among item categories. It is unlikely, however, that the difficult problems of defining living standards and measuring changes in the cost of their attainment over time will ever be resolved completely.
Health Information Definitions
The Health Cost Index® (HCI) is Milliman's proprietary measure of healthcare cost increases. First published in 1988, the HCI is based on data gathered from the providers of healthcare (e.g., hospital, physicians, pharmacies) to capture changes in healthcare costs per capita for the overall population (excluding Medicare). The HCI is available by type of benefit (hospital, physician, prescription drug).
The Health Cost Index Report® (HCIR) employs data through the previously ended quarter, making it a timely source of information on healthcare trends. It incorporates changes in utilization and intensity that are not reflected in the standard medical price indices. More importantly, the HCIR provides projections of the direction and relative change in future healthcare trends, based on economic variables that explain the movement of healthcare costs.
The HCIR represents the latest trends and forecasts from our proprietary database of medical trends. These trends measure the market average rate of increase in medical costs for a typical $250-deductible comprehensive major medical benefit package. Our database measures the growth rate in medical consumption by measuring how fast provider net revenues increase. This inherently captures price, utilization, and mix/intensity of service changes (technology). The HCIR presents trends by benefit and by region of the country. Various levels of detail are available for benchmarking or forecasting healthcare trends of various payers.
Source: Milliman, Inc. Statistics
Source of Definitions:
Click for more information on any of the above environmental topics. You will find information about Superfund sites in your area, the health effects of common contaminants, cleanup efforts, and how you can become involved in cleanup activities in your community.
Demographics Index Pages
Demographics by Town
Demographics by ZipCode
Tarrytown-On-Hudson is located in the western part of Westchester County, NY. It is situated on the eastern shore of the Hudson River in an area called "The Tappan Zee". The first documented inhabitants of Tarrytown are the Weckquaesgeek Indians, a branch of the Mohican tribe of the Algonquin nation. The Weckquaesgeeks raised corn, squash, beans, and tobacco. They fished the Hudson for shad, oysters and other shellfish and hunted the area for deer and black bear. They also trapped for fur and hides for clothing, and later traded these with the Dutch. Their principle settlement was at the foot of Church Street at a place they called Alipconk, also known as the Place of Elms.
Records show that the first residence in Tarrytown was built in 1645. However, the exact location is not known. The first white settlers were Dutch. They were farmers, fur trappers, and fishermen. Tarrytown soil was light and loamy which was ideal for growing cereals; especially wheat. This led to the area being known as Wheat Town, or Terve Town, which later became mispronounced as Tarrytown. Some historians believe that "tarry" is a corruption of the Dutch word "tarwe" wheat, hence the name "Tarrytown".
Point of Interest: Washington Irving's explanation for the name of "Tarrytown" as written in "The Legend Of Sleepy Hollow", published in the Sketch Book of 1820 is: "In the bosom of one of those spacious coves which indent the eastern shore of the Hudson, at that broad expansion of the river denominated by the ancient Dutch navigators of the Tappan Zee, and where they always prudently shortened sail and implored the protection of St. Nicholas when they crossed, there lies a small market town or rural port which by some is called Greenburgh, but which is more generally and properly known by the name of Tarry Town. This name was given, we are told, in former days, by the good housewives of the adjacent county, from the inveterate propensity of their husbands to linger about the village tavern on market days."
Frederick Philipse, 1626-1702, of Dutch descent, began buying land in 1681 becoming the largest land owner in the Tarrytown area. In 1693, Frederick Philipse was granted a charter for 52,000 acres along the Hudson River by Monarchs William and Mary of Great Britain. His land extended from North Tarrytown, N.Y., to the Bronx, with the Hudson River on the west and the Bronx River on the east. This area covered approximately 90,000 acres. Philipse built two grand manor houses: "Philipse Manor and Philipsburg Manor".
During the American Revolution (1775 - 1781), Tarrytown was part of the "Neutral Ground", an area of Westchester County lying between the British lines to the south and the American lines to the north. Without the protection of either army, the people were subjected to fierce raids by both sides. In 1780 a momentous incident took place which many historians believe helped win the American Revolution.
Point of Interest: On September 23, 1780, Major John Andre, a British spy, was captured by three local militiamen, John Paulding, Isaac Van Wart, and David Williams. Major Andre was carrying papers describing the fortification of West Point, given to him by Benedict Arnold. The clandestine meeting near Haverstraw ended at dawn making it too risky for the Loyalists to row Andre back to the Vulture, which was to carry him back to British Headquarters in New York City. The next day the Americans fired upon the Vulture from Croton Point, forcing it to leave without Andre. There is a historical marker at the foot of Church Street because Americans again fired on the Vulture as it passed by Tarrytown. Benedict Arnold recommended that Andre travel by land on the eastside of the Hudson and was traveling south on horseback, eventually reaching the neutral territory of Tarrytown. John Paulding, who had recently escaped from a British prison in New York City was wearing a Hessian coat, and Andre approached the group thinking they were allies. He was stopped and questioned by the three militiamen who found the plans to West Point hidden in Andre's boot. Andre was brought to the authorities. He was tried and convicted as a spy and hanged in Tappan, New York on October 2, 1780.
In 1853, near Patriot's Park, a monument was erected to honor the three heroic militiamen. At a later dedication, the monument was increased and a bronze stature of John Paulding was added. There is a dedication in stone on the south side of the monument which reads "On this spot the 23rd day of September, 1780, the spy, Major John Andre, Adjutant General of the British Army, was captured by John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van Wart, all natives of this county. History has told the rest. The people of Westchester County have erected this Monument, as well to commemorate a great Event, as to testify their high estimation of that Integrity and Patriotism which, rejecting every temptation, rescued the United States from most imminent peril by baffling the arts of a Spy and the plots of a Traitor. Dedicated October 7, 1853." On the north side of the block an inscription reads, "Their conduct merits our warmest esteem. They have prevented, in all probability, our suffering one of the severest strokes that could have been meditated against us" written by George Washington.
A brief business history of Tarrytown:
The automobile industry began in the area in 1899 with the Mobile Company of U.S.A. They were followed by Maxwell-Briscoe, and then, The Chevrolet Motor Co. in 1915 that became the General Motors Assembly Division in 1918. The General Motors plant was in North Tarrytown (now Sleepy Hollow), During World War II the assembly plant was retooled to make wings for Grumman torpedo bombers and was named Eastern Aircraft employing 10,000 workers, 2,900 of the workers were women. Before the 1970's most workers lived in Tarrytown or Sleepy Hollow. On the southern end of town is the General Motors Training Center that instructs dealer technicians. They have been in Tarrytown since 1955. General Foods became Kraft General Foods in 1989 and is involved in product development, packaging, and quality control. Hitachi Corporate has been in Tarrytown since 1984.
Tarrytown flourished as an active river port in the post-war period. After the Hudson River Railroad opened in 1849, river traffic slowed and various manufacturing enterprises sprang up. Marking this growth, the village incorporated in 1870. It was as a distinguished residential community, however, that Tarrytown truly gained eminence.
1849 was a turning point in the history of Tarrytown as the New York & Hudson River Railroad connected New York City and Albany as it passed through Tarrytown. The Railroad decreased the amount of steamboat traffic on the river, and it began the change from rural farming in Tarrytown. The railroad increased the population that began to work in factories, tool works and other industries that sprang up on the River. At that time, the Hudson River reached to the bottom of Cottage Place and Windle Park. Orchard Street, Depot Plaza, and Franklin Courts were built on top of landfill.
Orchard Street, was the main business section of Tarrytown from 1845 to 1969. It ran south from Valley and Wildey Street to Franklin and White Street. It consisted of several blocks of beautiful 19th century buildings. By the 1960's there had been several devastating fires, and the buildings were beginning to look run down. As a result, in 1969 the difficult decision to raze Orchard Street was made to make way for Urban Renewal and the building of Asbury Terrace.
History of Tarrytown Mansions, Castles, and Historic Sites:
Frederick Philipse built "Philipsburg Manor" circa 1683, as a mill and a manor hall. Philipsburg Manor was the northern family seat, at Upper Mills, North Tarrytown, on the Pocantico River. When Frederick died in 1702, his son Adolph became "Lord of the Manor". He doubled the size of the original home and increased the capacity of the mill by adding a third set of millstones so that he could grind barley and corn as well as his wheat. Over the years, Philipsburg Manor has been extensively restored. It now features a stone manor house, 18th-century period furnishings, a working water-powered grist mill and millpond, an 18th-century barn, a slave garden, and a reconstructed tenant farm house. The grounds are home to historic breeds of cattle, sheep, and chickens. Today, Philipsburg Manor is a living history museum of Dutch colonial life.
Frederick Philipse built "The Old Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow" circa 1697
By the turn of the 20th century, the Tarrytown skyline was filled with many new and "old" mansions and castles. Tarrytown was known as "Millionaire's Colony". More than 65 grand estates filled the area.
"Lyndhurst" circa 1838, is a preeminent architectural landmark. It resides in a 67-acre park representing 19th century architecture, decorative arts, and landscape. Overlooking the Hudson River in Tarrytown, NY, Lyndhurst is one of America's finest Gothic Revival mansions. Its noteworthy occupants included: former New York City mayor William Paulding, merchant George Merritt, and the railroad magnate and Wall Street tycoon Jay Gould.
"Hillcrest" circa 1882, built by Captain William Casey on 18 acres of land. Mark Twain bought the estate in 1902. After living there for two years, Mark Twain had a dispute with the village regarding the assessment of the estate. In 1904 he sold it to Charles Gardner who sold it to Jacques Halle, a member of the New York Stock Exchange. Halle demolished the old home and made a larger mansion that he called Halleston. It was later acquired by a developer, David Swope. Today, Tappan Hill is known as "Abigail Kirsch at Tappan Hill" an elegant venue for receptions.
"The Tarrytown Music Hall" circa 1885, built in the Queen Anne Style by William Wallace, the chocolate candy manufacturer. The Tarrytown Music Hall is the oldest continually operating theater in Westchester. The interior displays the beauty of Victorian craftsmanship, and the Art Deco style.
"Carrollcliff" circa 1897 and 1910 was built in two stages. It was built in the Tudor style by Carroll, the son of a Civil War General. It was built from stone quarried on the property and nearby Glenville. Carroll was a correspondent for the New York Times, a playwright, and organizer of a street paving company. Today, this site is the magnificent "Castle on the Hudson" hotel.
"Kykuit" circa 1902, built by John D. Rockefeller and has been the home to four generations of the Rockefeller family. Kykuit means "high point" in Dutch and has breathtaking views of the Hudson River. Kykuit is home to beautiful furniture, paintings and sculptures. The grounds contain wonderful terraces, fountains, gardens, and a large collection of 20th century sculpture. Kykuit also has a large collection of antique cars and horse drawn vehicles.
The millionaires of "Millionaire's Colony" greatly contributed to Tarrytown's economy. Every mansion and castle was built mostly by local tradesmen, every estate had many local workmen, and every local merchant had his share of millionaire customers.
Following World War II, socio-economic changes altered this aspect of the community, as clusters of single family homes replaced large estates. Construction of the New York State Thruway and Tappan Zee Bridge accelerated the growth of Tarrytown and Sleepy Hollow, with new residents flocking to this desirable community.
History And Antiquities
Tarrytown is pleasantly situated 28 miles N. of New York, on an elevation overlooking the Hudson River, opposite the widest part of Tappan bay. The village contains 4 churches, 80 or 90 dwellings, and about 1,000 inhabitants. Situated about one fourth of a mile N. of the village, Andre was taken prisoner, in September 1780, by three militiamen. The three were playing cards in the field which was then covered with trees and shrubbery, when their attention was arrested by the clattering of a horse's hoofs over a wooden bridge. They left their cards, and arrested Andre. The annexed account of the taking of Andre, is from a manuscript in the possession f Isaac H. Tiffany, Esq. being the notes of a personal conversation which he had with David Williams, one of the actors in the scene at Broome, Schoharie county, Feb. 13, 1817.