Westchester Demographic - Definitions
Terms Used in Demographic Data
2-Year College Degree
4-Year College Degree
Percentage of population (over the age of 25) with a Bachelor Degree or another recognized 4 year degree.
Anticipated Future Job Growth
Average Household Size
Average Income Per Capita
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
Cost of Living Index
Expenditures per Student
Health Cost Index
High School Graduates
Home Appreciation Percent
Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building, and which have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who share living arrangements, unless there are nine or more persons unrelated to the person in charge, in which case the living space is classified as group quarters. Occupants of group quarters (dormitories, barracks, institutions, etc., excluding any staff quarters that satisfy the housing-unit criteria) are by definition not household members.
Market basket - Consumer Price Index
The median is a better indicator than the average, because a few values on either end do not effect the median value.
Median Age of Homes
Median Home Value
Median Household Income
Not In Labor Force
People Per Household
Percent Commuting by Bus or Train
Percent Commuting by Car
Percent Commuting by Carpool
Percent of Vacant Homes
Percent Owning Home
Percent Renting Home
Percent Working at Home
Physicians per capita
Property Crime Risk
Recent Job Growth
Students per Guidance Counselor
Students per Librarian
Students per Teacher
Violent Crime Risk
Environment & Topography
What is Air Quality and Air Pollution?
The AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act: ground-level ozone, particle pollution (also known as particulate matter), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. For each of these pollutants, EPA has established national air quality standards to protect public health. Ground-level ozone and airborne particles are the two pollutants that pose the greatest threat to human health in this country.
How Does the AQI Work?
An AQI value of 100 generally corresponds to the national air quality standard for the pollutant, which is the level EPA has set to protect public health. AQI values below 100 are generally thought of as satisfactory. When AQI values are above 100, air quality is considered to be unhealthy - at first for certain sensitive groups of people, then for everyone as AQI values get higher.
Understanding the AQI
Each category corresponds to a different level of health concern. The six levels of health concern and what they mean are:
0 to 50 = Good
51 to 100 = Moderate
101 to 150 = Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
151 to 200 = Unhealthy
201 to 300 = Very Unhealthy
301 and above = Hazardous
To find your Air Quality Report:
What is Watershed Quality and Watershed Management?
The CWP provides "local governments, activists, and watershed organizations around the country with the technical tools for protecting some of the nation's most precious natural resources: our streams, lakes, and rivers." Its multidisciplinary strategy for watershed protection "encompasses watershed planning, watershed restoration, stormwater management, watershed research, better site design, education and outreach, and watershed training."
Water Quality: Wetland Acres
Non-tidal wetlands are lost due to land development, highway building, and other projects that directly impact waterways. Indirect impacts also occur when upland and nearby development redirect drainage patterns, increases surface runoff, and reduces groundwater inflows to negatively impact the hydrologic regime critical to a viable wetland environment. When surface runoff and groundwater flows to wetlands are substantially altered, many vital wetland functions can be lost.
A decline in the condition of our streams results in a reduction in biodiversity within our landscape, as more diverse fish and insect communities are reduced to a community with mostly pollutant and stress tolerant species. A decline in stream condition also generally reflects an increase in human induced impacts in a watershed that are not being adequately managed, such as increases in stormwater runoff, stream erosion and sedimentation, warming of stream temperatures from paved areas and inadequate forested buffers, pollutant loads and trash dumping. These watershed impacts reduce the aesthetic and recreational value of our natural resources, and contribute to the degradation of downstream resources. Reduced stream quality, manifested in increased sediment, nutrient, or other pollutant loadings, also impacts water supply reservoirs and treatment costs of water withdrawn from other watersheds to support public water supply needs.
The Memorandum of Agreement contains updated Watershed Rules and Regulations which are designed to ensure the continued, long-term protection of New York City’s drinking water supply and minimize, to the extent feasible, adverse impacts on the Watershed communities. The Watershed Regulations are designed to reduce current contaminants and prevent the introduction of new sources of contamination to the drinking water supply. The Watershed Regulations work in conjunction with existing federal and state regulations and provide additional regulations tailored to the watershed area itself.
What is Superfund?
Who Implements Superfund?
The 1978 discovery of toxic chemicals beneath the suburban infrastructure of Love Canal, in Niagara Falls, New York first illuminated the consequences of environmental neglect. For decades, many American businesses had disposed of hazardous waste improperly, contaminating tens of thousands of sites nationally, including nearly 250 within Region 2 alone. Accidents, spills, and leaks of hazardous materials resulted in land, water, and air that pose immediate and potential threats to public and environmental health.
Serves: New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands and 7 tribes.
Citizen reaction to these localized threats led Congress to establish the Superfund Program in 1980, an initiative designed to locate, investigate, and clean up the most hazardous sites nationwide. Superfund is officially called CERCLA, or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The EPA administers the Superfund Program in cooperation with individual states and tribal governments. Superfund constitutes a crucial environmental and economic precedent within American legislative history.
What is the UV Index?
Click on the Explore a Town banner at the top of this page.
2 or less = Low
3 to 5 = Moderate
6 to 8 = High
8 to 10 = Very High
11+ = Extreme
By taking a few simple precautions daily, you can greatly reduce your risk of sun-related illnesses.
Avoid Sun Tanning and Tanning Beds
Generously Apply Sunscreen with an SPF of at least 15
Wear Protective Clothing, Including a Hat, Sunglasses, and Full-Length Clothing
Use Extra Caution Near Water, Snow and Sand
Watch for the UV Index
Get Vitamin D Safely
Early detection of melanoma can save your life. Carefully examine ALL of your skin once a month. A new or changing mole in an adult should be evaluated by a dermatologist.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency
Mount Vernon (city) = 8.375%
New Rochelle (city) = 8.375%
White Plains (city) = 7.875%
Yonkers (city) = 8.375%
Westchester and Town/City rates are current as of 1/13/2009.
Add an additional 5% to the combined state and local sales tax rate for certain short term passenger car rentals or sales of entertainment or information services provided by telephone or telegraph which are received exclusively in an auditory manner over the telephone or telegraph.
Cost of Living Index
How does the Consumer Price Index (CPI) relate to the Cost of Living Index?
The CPI is frequently called a cost-of-living index, but it differs in important ways from a complete cost-of-living measure. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) has for some time used a cost-of-living framework in making practical decisions about questions that arise in constructing the CPI.
A cost-of-living index is a conceptual measurement goal, however, not a straightforward alternative to the CPI. A cost-of-living index would measure changes over time in the amount that consumers need to spend to reach a certain "utility level" or "standard of living."
Both the CPI and a cost-of-living index would reflect changes in the prices of goods and services, such as food and clothing, that are directly purchased in the marketplace; but a complete cost-of-living index would go beyond this to also take into account changes in other governmental or environmental factors that affect consumers' well-being. It is very difficult to determine the proper treatment of public goods, such as safety and education, and other broad concerns, such as health, water quality, and crime that would comprise a complete cost-of-living framework.
Traditionally, the CPI was considered an upper bound to a cost-of-living index in that the CPI did not reflect the changes in buying or consumption patterns that consumers would make to adjust to relative price changes. The ability to substitute means that the increase in the cost to consumers of maintaining their level of well-being tends to be somewhat less than the increase in the cost of the mix of goods and services they previously purchased.
Since January 1999, a geometric mean formula has been used to calculate most basic indexes within the CPI; in other words, the prices within most item categories (e.g., apples) are averaged using a geometric mean formula. This improvement moves the CPI somewhat closer to a cost-of-living measure, as the geometric mean formula allows for a modest amount of consumer substitution as relative prices within item categories change.
Since the geometric mean formula is used only to average prices within item categories, it does not account for consumer substitution taking place between item categories. For example, if the price of pork increases compared to those of other meats, shoppers might shift their purchases away from pork to beef, poultry, or fish. The CPI formula does not reflect this type of consumer response to changing relative prices. In 2002, as a complement to the CPI-U and CPI-W, BLS began producing a new index intended to more closely approximate a cost-of-living index by reflecting substitution among item categories. It is unlikely, however, that the difficult problems of defining living standards and measuring changes in the cost of their attainment over time will ever be resolved completely.
Health Information Definitions
The Health Cost Index® (HCI) is Milliman's proprietary measure of healthcare cost increases. First published in 1988, the HCI is based on data gathered from the providers of healthcare (e.g., hospital, physicians, pharmacies) to capture changes in healthcare costs per capita for the overall population (excluding Medicare). The HCI is available by type of benefit (hospital, physician, prescription drug).
The Health Cost Index Report® (HCIR) employs data through the previously ended quarter, making it a timely source of information on healthcare trends. It incorporates changes in utilization and intensity that are not reflected in the standard medical price indices. More importantly, the HCIR provides projections of the direction and relative change in future healthcare trends, based on economic variables that explain the movement of healthcare costs.
The HCIR represents the latest trends and forecasts from our proprietary database of medical trends. These trends measure the market average rate of increase in medical costs for a typical $250-deductible comprehensive major medical benefit package. Our database measures the growth rate in medical consumption by measuring how fast provider net revenues increase. This inherently captures price, utilization, and mix/intensity of service changes (technology). The HCIR presents trends by benefit and by region of the country. Various levels of detail are available for benchmarking or forecasting healthcare trends of various payers.
Source: Milliman, Inc. Statistics
Source of Definitions:
Click for more information on any of the above environmental topics. You will find information about Superfund sites in your area, the health effects of common contaminants, cleanup efforts, and how you can become involved in cleanup activities in your community.
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