Counseling & Psychotherapy | Therapists
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"Here's the core of the Encyclopedia — a carefully plotted, interconnected survey of concepts, theories, models, and fields. Readers will find a clearly written overview of the History and Philosophy of Psychology and comprehensive coverage of dozens of fields within psychology, from Animal Learning and Behavior to Sport Psychology, in articles that present the history of each field, its distinctive methods, perspectives, tools, and contributions.
"There is also separate coverage of the major theories and models of psychology. Authoritative, balanced introductions review everything from Agency and Control Theory to Work Adjustment Theory. The Encyclopedia is a valuable professional resource as well, with up-to-date coverage of essential issues in training, ethics, and practice."
"The influential figures of psychology are fully represented in close to 400 biographies that span thousands of years and many different areas of achievement. Luminaries such as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, and B. F. Skinner are covered, as well as the essential contributions of lesser-known figures, such as Gustav Theodor Fechner and Edmund Husserl. Many of the great minds that are often associated with other areas — Friedrich Nietzsche, René Descartes, and David Hume to name are few-but whose thinking has had extraordinary influence on how the self is understood are given unique coverage in the Encyclopedia."
Research Design and Statistics, Testing, and Assessment
"From the diverse strategies of Qualitative Research to the techniques of Nonparametric Statistics and every other important quantitative method, the Encyclopedia is a primer on the fundamental tools of the behavioral scientists, covering in-depth such topics as the basic requirements for test construction and validation, leading methods of data analysis such as Factor Analysis, and much more, including the uses and limits of every major psychological test."
On Body and Mind, Brain and Behavior
"How we think, feel, learn, remember, and communicate has always been a central concern of psychology. Close to 200 articles synthesize what we know about biological and cognitive processes. The articles bring together a remarkable body of knowledge about the body's basic systems, sensory processes, and projection, learning, memory, states of consciousness, thinking, language, communications, and emotion.
"How do Cognitive Maps make sense of the world? What does Psycholinguistics investigate? What is the psychology of Joy? The biology of Taste? The dynamics of — and debates about — Repressed Memory? The Encyclopedia has the answers."
The Personal, Interpersonal, and the Social
"Questions of identity such as Who am I? What shapes me? Resonate through today's society as never before. The Encyclopedia's extensive coverage of personality and social psychology traces the connections between the self and its world, from foundation articles on Self-Esteem to surveys of dynamics that connect individuals and groups.
"The Encyclopedia offers 24 in-depth articles on Intelligence; extensive coverage of Sex and Gender; and expert surveys of every aspect of life in a social world-from the dynamics of Love and Friendship to the sources of Racism, Sexism, and Homophobia."
Development Across the Lifespan
"What it means to be human through the stages of our lives is treated in articles on the psychology of Infancy and Early Childhood through to Adolescence, Adulthood, and Aging. Along the way, separate articles examine the passages we make in life from the psychology of Early Learning through to the stages of Death and Dying."
Institutions and Environments: Family, School, and Work
"The Encyclopedia moves from the individual to the structures of daily life in a rich selection of articles on the psychology of the family, from Birth Order to Parent–Child Relationship; schooling and education; work, employment, and careers; neighborhoods and communities; machines and technology."
Cultural and Cross-Cultural Psychology
"Twenty-seven entries comprise the Encyclopedia's coverage of the impact of culture on human identity and behavior-and the cultural contexts of psychological theory and practice in a diverse world.
"Introductions to such core concepts as Acculturation, Alienation, Cultural Pluralism, and Ethnic and Racial Identity are complemented by surveys of ethno cultural groups and traditions-from African American Psychology to the psychological concerns of such groups as Migrants and Refugees."
Mental Health and Mental Disorders
"Comprehensive coverage of adjustment and clinical dysfunction touches on three major areas: a broad range of behavioral and mental disorders, including Alcoholism, Panic Disorders, and Schizophrenia; physical illnesses and conditions, from Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome to the psychological implications of Vision Impairment; and social problems, from Child Abuse and Neglect to Sexual Harassment."
Health and Wellness
"The Encyclopedia surveys the full range of psychological interventions, from preventive measures such as Head Start to psychosocial interventions (from Family Therapy to Genetic Counseling), pharmacological and other biological treatments to institutional care. Overviews of basic topics (Psychotherapy, for example) and critical assessments of each modality help readers understand the strengths and weaknesses of each approach."
Psychology and the Larger World
"An important focus of the Encyclopedia is the relationship of psychology to other facets of the human enterprise. Discover the uses of psychological knowledge in such arenas as the law, politics, the military, religion, and the arts-from the psychology of Political Leadership to the interplay of psychology and Religious Symbol, Myth, and Ritual across many cultures and traditions."
How psychotherapy works
One of the key objectives of psychotherapy is to help you gain a better understanding of the issues that are troubling you and how you can find new ways of approaching situations that you find difficult. Psychotherapy can also help you think about new methods to help you cope in general or with particular problems.
"Developing a trusting relationship with your psychotherapist is paramount. You will need to trust and even respect your therapist in order to speak openly and honestly about your most private thoughts and actions. Depending on the type of psychotherapy you have and the reason you're having it, your treatment may last several months or even longer; sometimes taking years."
Types of Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy is comprised of several types of disciplines. A therapist may decide on a specific approach, depending on the patient and the patient's issues. Other factors may include a timeline for solving problems that may be of an immediate nature, while others may be steeped in history and take longer to unfold.
"Psychoanalysis is based on the modern developments of the theories of Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that bad thoughts and experiences from childhood are repressed but continue to influence your feelings as an adult. In psychoanalysis, you talk about your personal relationships and the thoughts you have about other people. You're encouraged to discuss the past as well as the present.This allows the therapist to identify links between past events and how you think and act now. This form of psychotherapy is usually intensive and requires a long-term commitment.
"Psychodynamic therapy is a less intensive form of psychoanalysis that uses similar techniques, but aims to find quicker solutions to more immediate problems.
"Art, music and movement therapies often use the psychodynamic model of working, but encourage alternative forms of self-expression and communication as well as talking. Even young children can take part – this is known as play therapy. Musical or technical skills are not needed for this type of therapy to be successful."
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
"Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a treatment based on a combination of cognitive therapy and behavioral psychotherapy. Cognitive therapy explores ways your thoughts and beliefs may be causing emotional problems. Your therapist will discuss these issues with you so you can try to develop more helpful ways of thinking to allow you to overcome your problems.
"Behavioral psychotherapy involves finding ways to help you change the way you act. It's often used to overcome a specific fear or phobia by encouraging you to gradually face these fears and help you relax and feel comfortable as you do it. During CBT, you and your therapist agree on tasks for you to do in between sessions. This will help you deal with problems yourself so you no longer need therapy.
"CBT is usually aimed at a specific problem and the courses are often brief, typically involving 6 to 20 sessions."
Cognitive Analytical Therapy
"During early sessions of cognitive analytical therapy (CAT), you'll discuss events and experiences from your past to help you understand why you feel, think and behave the way you do now. After the first few sessions, your therapist will write down what you've discussed on paper, and will work with you to map out problem patterns that have emerged to help you understand how these problems occurred.
"Your therapist will use this to help you figure out ways of changing these problem patterns. They may suggest using diaries and progress charts to help you develop skills you can use to continue improving after the therapy sessions have finished. Like CBT, a course of CAT is often brief. It may involve about 16 sessions."
Humanistic therapies encourage you to explore how you think about yourself and recognize your strengths. The aim is to help you think about yourself more positively and improve your self-awareness. There are a several types of humanistic therapies, which are described below.
"Person-centered counselling aims to create a non-judgmental environment where you can feel comfortable talking about yourself and are able to see that you have the ability to change. Your therapist will try to look at your experiences from your point of view."
"Gestalt therapy takes a holistic approach, focusing on your experiences, thoughts, feelings and actions to help improve your self-awareness. This type of therapy often involves activities such as writing or role-playing."
"Transactional analysis aims to explore how the problems in your life may have been shaped by decisions and teachings from childhood. You'll work with your therapist to help you find ways to break away from these unconscious repetitive patterns of thinking and behaving."
"Transpersonal psychology encourages you to explore who you really are as a person. It often involves using techniques such as meditation and visualization."
"Existential therapy aims to help increase your self-awareness and make sense of your existence. Existential therapy is not too concerned with your past, but instead focuses on the choices to be made in the present and future."
"Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has been shown to be particularly effective in treating depression. Your therapist will be interested in the link between your relationships with others and your emotional problems. They will help you develop new approaches to dealing with interpersonal difficulties to help improve your mental health. IPT usually involves about 12 to 16 sessions."
Family and Couple (systemic) Therapy
"Family therapy focuses on family relationships, such as marriage, and encourages everyone within the family or relationship to work together to fix problems. The therapist encourages group discussions or exercises that involve everyone, and promotes a healthy family unit as a way of improving mental health. In some cases, there may be more than one therapist involved to make sure everyone involved in the therapy has their say."