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 All Katonah Listings10536, history, town history, about katonah, activities, attractions, things to do, hamlets, katonah, biking, hiking, fishing, katonah memorial park, antiquing, antique shops in katonah, historic sites, john jay homestead, historic site, children

 Katonah American Revolution | American War of Independence

Historic Site, Westchester, Bedford, Founding Fathers, Treaty of Paris, Revolutionary War, Federalist Papers, first Chief Justice, Supreme Court, historic house, guided tour, First Chief-Justice of the United States, Declaration of Independence | Westchester John Jay Homestead "State Historic Site"

914-232-5651 
  John Jay Homestead State Historic Site is located at 400 Jay Street, Katonah, NY 10536 in Westchester County. John Jay Homestead  "State Historic Site" | Westchester  website and more . . .
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 Mount Vernon American Revolution | American War of Independence

10550, National Historic Site, Mount Vernon, NY , History of St. Paul's Church, about Saint Paul's Church, Things To Do at Saint Paul's Church, Cemetery Tour, Guided Tour of Church, Living History Program, Organ Concert, Outdoor Music Festival | Westchester Saint Paul's Church "Historic Site"

914-667-4116 
  Saint Paul's Church National Historic Site is located at 897 South Columbus Ave, Mount Vernon, NY 10550 in Westchester County.

    History of St. Paul's Church
    "In 1763, the people of Eastchester, New York began building the present stone and brick church building of St. Paul’s. It was an upgrade, a replacement for a small, square wooden meetinghouse building, which stood about 60-80 yards west of the current church. The wooden meeting house had been in use since 1700, and by the 1760s, Eastchester was a larger, wealthier town, deserving a more substantial building for public use. It was also the end of the French and Indian War, a time of great celebration, optimism and wealth in the colonies, with the long-dreaded French rivals vanquished from North America. The new church was partly a celebration of that momentous victory of England and her colonies over France.
Saint Paul's Church  "Historic Site" | Westchester  website and more . . .
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 Sleepy Hollow American Revolution | American War of Independence

Historic Site, British spy Major John Andre, Andre Monument, British spy, American Revolution, History, Historic Preservation Society, treachery of Benedict Arnold, Major John André in the American Revolution, Benedict Arnold | Westchester André Captors' Monument "Historic Site - Sleepy Hollow"

 
  Patriots Park, a 4-acre park, is located at North Broadway, Tarrytown, NY 10591 in Westchester County on the border of Sleepy Hollow.

Click to enlarge photo of the plaque at base of the Captors' Monument at Patriots Park.

Click to enlarge photo of Patriot Park Militiaman
" The people of Westchester County have erected this monument as well to commemorate a great event as to testify their high estimation of that integrity and patriotism which, rejecting every temptation rescued the United States from most imminent peril by baffling the arts of a spy and the plots of a traitor, Dedicated October 7th 1853 "


"This plaque was placed here under the auspices of the bicentennial celebration committee, to preserve for posterity the text, of the original inscription carved in stone. Unveiled September 6, 1980.
"
André Captors' Monument  "Historic Site - Sleepy Hollow" | Westchester  more . . .
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 Tarrytown American Revolution | American War of Independence

John André in the American Revolution, John Andre, spy, Sir Henry Clinton, the British commander-in-chief.   Benedict Arnold.  George Washington Tappan, New York | Westchester American Revolution - John André

 
  John André in the American Revolution

John André (1750-1780) was the aide de camp of Sir Henry Clinton, the British commander-in-chief. André purchased a commission as second lieutenant in the Royal Welsh Fusiliers in 1771. In 1774 he joined a regiment in Quebec, where he pursued his first love of poetry and painting. In September and October 1775, American troops laid siege to his fort at St. Johns. He was captured, brought back to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and treated roughly. His days as a prisoner turned him against the American rebels. The Americans finally exchanged him in 1776, and he met up with British troops in New York City. Sir William Howe was especially interested in the information André had learned behind the American lines. André then purchased a position as captain and become General Charles Grey's aide. He became known for behaving ruthlessly and aggressively on the battlefield. In 1778 André joined the staff of Henry Clinton, General Howe's replacement. Clinton made him head of intelligence in April 1779. André successfully kept track of intelligence from American disserters and British prisoners who had escaped or were exchanged. American Revolution - John André | Westchester  website and more . . .

American Revolution, British Spy, André, history, Benedict Arnold, Revolutionary War, New York City, Tarrytown, Hudson River, George Washington, Patriots Park, John Paulding,  David Williams,  Isaac Van Wart, West Point, Westchester | Westchester American Revolution - Militiamen Capture British Spy

 
 
American Revolution - Militiamen Capture British Spy

The capture of British Major John André by three Westchester citizens is one of the most notable events in the history of Westchester County. André was a spy in league with Benedict Arnold in a scheme to sabotage American forces during the Revolutionary War. Events transpired as follows: American Revolution - Militiamen Capture British Spy | Westchester  more . . .

Historic Site, British spy Major John Andre, Andre Monument, British spy, American Revolution, History, Historic Preservation Society, treachery of Benedict Arnold, Major John André in the American Revolution, Benedict Arnold | Westchester André Captors' Monument "Historic Site - Tarrytown"

 
  Patriots Park, a 4-acre park, is located at North Broadway, Tarrytown, NY 10591 in Westchester County on the border of Sleepy Hollow.

Click to enlarge photo of the plaque at base of the Captors' Monument at Patriots Park.

Click to enlarge photo of Patriot Park Militiaman
" The people of Westchester County have erected this monument as well to commemorate a great event as to testify their high estimation of that integrity and patriotism which, rejecting every temptation rescued the United States from most imminent peril by baffling the arts of a spy and the plots of a traitor, Dedicated October 7th 1853 "


"This plaque was placed here under the auspices of the bicentennial celebration committee, to preserve for posterity the text, of the original inscription carved in stone. Unveiled September 6, 1980.
"
André Captors' Monument  "Historic Site - Tarrytown" | Westchester  more . . .
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 Westchester County American Revolution | American War of Independence

American Revolution, American War of Independence, French Count de Rochambeau, battle at Yorktown, Treaty of Paris, Continental Army, Continental Congress, Redcoats, Paul Revere, Revolution, Lexington and Concord, Bunker Hill | Westchester American Revolution - 2: Outbreak of the War

 
  The American Revolution, also known as the American War of Independence, spanned eight long years of fighting and political negotiations between Britain and her colonies. On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come. American Revolution - 2: Outbreak of the War | Westchester  more . . .

American Revolution, American War of Independence, battle at Yorktown, Treaty of Paris, Historical works, Continental Army, Bunker Hill, George Washington, Washington, Continental service, Continental Congress, American Military History | Westchester American Revolution - 3: Formation of the Continental Army

 
  The American Revolution, also known as the American War of Independence, spanned eight long years of fighting and political negotiations between Britain and her colonies. On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come. American Revolution - 3: Formation of the Continental Army | Westchester  more . . .

American Revolution, American War of Independence, Treaty of Paris, Gen. Richard Montgomery, Col. Benedict Arnold, American army, Revolution | Westchester American Revolution - 4: Invasion of Canada and Fall of Boston

 
  The American Revolution, also known as the American War of Independence, spanned eight long years of fighting and political negotiations between Britain and her colonies. On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come. American Revolution - 4: Invasion of Canada and Fall of Boston | Westchester  more . . .

The American Revolution, American War of Independence, War of Independence, Continental Army, 1777-1783, new nation, not worth a Continental, American Military History | Westchester American Revolution - 5: The New Nation

 
  The American Revolution, also known as the American War of Independence, spanned eight long years of fighting and political negotiations between Britain and her colonies. On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come. American Revolution - 5: The New Nation | Westchester  more . . .

American War of Independence, 1777-1783, War of the Revolution, historians, American war, Nathanael Greene, Henry Knox, Daniel Morgan, Benedict Arnold, Continental Army, Yorktown, militia, Continentals, Winning of Independence | Westchester American Revolution - 6: Winning of Independence 1777-1783

 
  The American Revolution, also known as the American War of Independence, spanned eight long years of fighting and political negotiations between Britain and her colonies. On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come. American Revolution - 6: Winning of Independence 1777-1783 | Westchester  more . . .

Benedict Arnold in the American Revolution, Benedict Arnold Traitor, Continental Army, Washington, Arnold, West Point, Hudson River, Major Andre, General Benedict Arnold, General George Washington, Revolutionary War, Benedict Arnold and Major André | Westchester American Revolution - Benedict Arnold

 
  The following write-ups of Benedict Arnold, the infamous traitor in the American Revolution, discuss Arnold in two different contexts: Benedict Arnold as a successful military leader in the American Revolution and Benedict Arnold, the Traitor.

Benedict Arnold, The Military Leader American Revolution - Benedict Arnold | Westchester  website and more . . .

Spy Letters of the American Revolution, spy letters, Letters, American Revolutionary War, Paul Revere, William Howe, John Burgoyne, John André, Benedict Arnold, Arnold, American Revolutionary War | Westchester American Revolution - Gallery of Spy Letters

 
  Spy Letters of the American Revolution
From the Collections of the Clements Library American Revolution - Gallery of  Spy Letters | Westchester  website and more . . .

George Washington, American Revolutionary War, first President, father of our country, Commander in Chief, Revolutionary War | Westchester American Revolution - George Washington

 
  George Washington - Commander in Chief throughout the American Revolutionary War

George Washington: An exhibit by John C. Dann, Director William L. Clements Library, May 8 to June 4, 2004 American Revolution - George Washington | Westchester  website and more . . .

American Revolution, Patriot, Revolution, Loyalist, American, War of Independence, Tarrytown, Great Britain, New York, America, Sir Henry Clinton, Westchester, militia, Historic 1777 & 1779 American Revolution Trail, American War for Independence | Westchester American Revolution - Letters of the Revolutionary War

 
  The following letters were written in Westchester County during the American Revolution. The letters are between General Samuel Parsons, a Patriot of the Revolution; and Governor Tryon, a Loyalist in this American War of Independence. American Revolution - Letters of the Revolutionary War | Westchester  more . . .

American War of Independence, Spy letters, Decoded Spy Letter, spy letter, Benedict Arnold, John André, Letter from Benedict Arnold, General George Washington, West Point, Coded Letter, Collections of the Clements Library, Goldstar Collection | Westchester American Revolution - Spy Letter "Decoded" West Point

 
  Spy letters of the American War of Independence

Decoded Spy Letter: July 12, 1780 - Benedict Arnold to John André (Decoded)

July 15, 1780, Letter from Benedict Arnold to John André
When Benedict Arnold wrote this letter to John André, he was still in Philadelphia. General George Washington had agreed to let Arnold have command of West Point on June 29, 1780. Arnold’s command included not only West Point but also the area from Fishskill to King’s Ferry, the infantry and cavalry on the east side of the river down to British lines, and the forts at Stony Point and Verplanck’s Point. Arnold probably did not leave Philadelphia for West Point until after July 21. Nevertheless, in this letter Arnold offered to surrender West Point for a sum of money. Because of delays in communication, Arnold did not know that his offer to surrender West Point had been accepted until August 24, 1780. American Revolution - Spy Letter "Decoded" West Point | Westchester  website and more . . .

Spy letters, American War of Independence, Benedict Arnold, John André, Collections of the Clements Library, Clinton Collection, Coded Spy Letter, decoded Spy letter, spy letter | Westchester American Revolution - Spy Letter in "Code"

 
  Spy letters of the American War of Independence

Coded Spy Letter: July 12, 1780 - Benedict Arnold to John André (Code)

I 293.9.7 to C_t. B. 103.8.2. the 7th 152.9.17. that , a F__ 112.9.17. and 22.8.29 were 105.9.50 to / 4 9.71 in 62.8.20 with , 163.8.19 A 22.8.19 at with 230.8.13. 263.8.17 I gave Mr. S---y a 164.8.16 / 147.8.261 to be 209.9.216 in C----a and have from 163.8.17 to .163.8.17 .58.8.27 to him. / Such 147.8.21 as I 164.9.5 147.9.16 s which he 24.9.125 me has 169.9.23'd to you / I 129.8.7 .46.9.22'd no 19.8.29 to 175.9.17 . 158.8.8 - or any 177.8.13 . 168.9.13 . ------- / I 105.9.5. soon to 57.9.7 .at 288.9.8 , 198.9.26, and most . 230.8.12. by --- / 291.8.27 an 149.8.27 with ---255.9.11 . 148.8.22, 182.4.28 in whom a 175.9.12 / 67.8.28 could be .196.9.16 --- the 177.8.8 is .103.8.19 to 22.9.3, and / to 66.8.15 -- are 182.8.28, 169.8.25 be . 260.8.5 , 205.9.3 near / that 209.9.18. --- and 192.9.9'd to 224.9.9 on ,188.8.13 or some ---- / 182.8.28 on 188.8.13 sent 185.6.24 to 95.9.124 an .104.8.1 120.9.7, W------- 105.9.5's on the .22.9.14.---- / of 163.8.19 F----- 172.8.7s to 56.9.8 |30.000| 172.8.70 to 11.94. in / 62.8.20. If 179.8.25, 84.8.9'd, 177.9.28. N---- is 111.9.27.'d on / 23.8.10. the 111.9.13, 180.9.19 if his 180.8.21 an .179.8.25., 255.8.17. for / that, 180.9.19, 44.8.9 --a-- is the 234.8.14 of 189.8.17. I --- / 44.8.9, 145.8.17, 294.9.12, in 266.8.17 as well as, 103.8.11, 184.9.15.---- / 80.4.20. ---- I149.8.7, 10.8.22'd the 57.9.71 at 288.9.9, 198.9.26, as, a / 100.4.18 in 189.8.19-- I can 221.8.6 the 173.8.19, 102.8.26, 236.8.21's--- / and 289.8.17 will be in 175.9.7, 87.8.7--- the 166.8.11, of the .191.9.16 / are .129.19.21 'of --- 266.9.14 of the .286.8.20, and 291.8.27 to be an ---163.9.4 / 115.8.16 -'a .114.8.25ing --- 263.9.14. are 207.8.17ed, 125.8.15, 103.8.60--- / from this 294.8.50, 104.9.26 -- If 84.8.9ed -- 294.9.12, 129.8.7. only / to 193.8.3 and the 64.9.5, 290.9.20, 245.8.3 be at an, 99.8.14 . / the .204.8.2, 253.8.7s are 159.8.10 the 187.8.11 of a 94.9.9ing / 164.8.24, 279.8.16, but of a .238.8.25, 93.9.28. American Revolution - Spy Letter in "Code" | Westchester  website and more . . .

spy network, New York City, Washington, spy ring, Culper Gang, George Washington, Benjamin Tallmadge | Westchester American Revolution - Stories of Spies and Letters

 
  The Culper Gang, June 27, 1779 - George Washington to Benjamin Tallmadge Source: Collections of the Clements Library American Revolution - Stories of Spies and Letters | Westchester  website and more . . .

War of Independence North American Colonies British Parliament Minutemen of Lexington Continental Congress George Washington's Army  French Count de Rochambeau Independent Nation | Westchester American Revolution - The Shot Heard Round The World

 
  LEST WE FORGET


The Shot Heard Round The World
"On April 19, 1775, was fired "the shot heard round the world." It was the shot fired for freedom and democracy by the Americans at Lexington and Concord. In 1836, upon the completion of the battle monument at Concord;, the gallant deeds of those early patriots were commemorated by Emerson in verse.

"By the rude bridge that arched the flood,
Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,
Here once the embattled farmers stood,
And fired the shot heard round the world.
American Revolution - The Shot Heard Round The World | Westchester  website and more . . .

Miss Jenny, American Revolution, Revolutionary War, woman spy, spying, Sir Henry Clinton, Rochambeau,  Hudson River,  British, New York City,  Tappan, New York | Westchester American Revolution - Women Spies, Miss Jenny

 
  Miss Jenny in the American Revolution
From the Collections of the Clements Library

Miss Jenny, August 15, 1781.
Baron Ottendorf was a German mercenary who began fighting in the Revolutionary War on the side of the Americans. In 1777, Washington relieved him of duty. Ottendorf joined up with the British army under the leadership of Sir Henry Clinton. In this letter, Ottendorf took the deposition of a woman spy who had infiltrated the French armies fighting on the American side. Nothing is known of Miss Jenny's personal life or professional career in intelligence gathering, but her spying expedition played an important role in the British troop's movements in the late summer of 1781. Earlier in the spring, Sir Henry Clinton learned from his spy network that American troops, under the leadership of General Washington, were planning to meet up with Rochambeau's French troops, cross the Hudson River and attack the British in New York City. Clinton and his men nervously watched the movements of the American and French troops, hoping to learn of Washington and Rochambeau's strategies. In August of 1781, French and American troops crossed the Hudson River and settled near Tappan where New York militiamen were mobilizing.

Press blue button for details of Miss Jenny and her impact on the outcome of the American Revolution. American Revolution - Women Spies, Miss Jenny | Westchester  website and more . . .
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 White Plains American Revolution | American War of Independence

Battles of the American Revolution, Battle atop Chatterton Hill in White Plains, American Continental Army, historical landmark in White Plains, historic event, Interpretive sign in Battle-Whitney Park, Historic Account of Battle of White Plains | Westchester American Revolution - Battle atop Chatterton Hill "Historic Site"

914-422-1348 
  Battles of the American Revolution
Battle atop Chatterton Hill in White Plains
Date: October 28, 1776
Between: British against the American Continental Army
Location: White Plains, New York American Revolution - Battle atop Chatterton Hill  "Historic Site" | Westchester  more . . .

Battles of the American Revolution, American Revolution, History, History of the United States, White Plains, New York, Sir Henry Clinton, North Castle, Fort Washington, Washington, Howe, Hudson River, Hessian troops, Knyphausen, Common Sense | Westchester American Revolution - Battle of White Plains "Historic Site"

 
  Battles of the American Revolution
Battle of White Plains
Date: October 28th, 1776
Between: British against the American Continental Army
Location: White Plains, New York American Revolution - Battle of White Plains  "Historic Site" | Westchester  more . . .

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American Revolution
American War of Independence
Hudson River Valley

The American Revolution, also known as the American War of Independence, spanned eight long years of fighting and political negotiations between Britain and her colonies. On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come.

Two years later, in September, 1783, after much diplomacy, the Treaty of Paris was signed and the former 13 colonies were recognized as an independent nation; the United States of America was born.

Read about the American Revolution from different perspectives, written at different times in history, by different historians. Historical works used as a source for this section, may be accessed online and read in its entirety.

The American Revolution
Learn about The American Revolution and its several phases, including:

  • Causes of the American Revolution

  • Outbreak of the American Revolution

  • Formation of the Continental Army

  • The Invasion of Canada and Fall of Boston

  • The New Nation

  • The Winning of Independence, 1777-1783


Summary of The American Revolution and its impact on the Hudson River Valley
The American Revolution was a conflict between 13 British colonies on the eastern shores of North America, and their mother country, Great Britain. The American Revolution, also known in history as the "American War of Independence", lasted from 1775 to 1783. Eventually, the colonies won the war against the British and became a separate nation called "The United States of America". The American victory over the British ended two centuries of British rule over most of the North American Colonies, resulting in the formation of the United States of America.

One of the causes of the American Revolution can be traced to the end of the French and Indian War, 1755 - 1762; fought in Europe, India and the West Indies. Britain's victory in the French and Indian War, forced the French out of Canada, thereby allowing the British to assume government of the French population. With the additional territory won from France, Britain's enormous national debt was increased. The British victory also released the American colonies from the threat of a French invasion.

In an attempt to relieve Britain of its financial burden, British Parliament decided that the American Colonists would have to help pay for their own defense, despite the fact that a French invasion was no longer a real threat. Toward this end, British Parliament passed the first of several tax laws, including the Stamp Act, which taxed all paper products in the colonies. The Americans declared it was unfair to tax them when they had no representation in Parliament, and protests eventually escalated to open hostilities in 1775, when the British Regulars fired on the Minutemen in Lexington, Massachusetts.

Battles of the American Revolution
The American Revolution started in 1775 when the British government decided to use overwhelming military force to crush the American revolt in Boston at the Battle of Concord and Lexington, April 19, 1775. The "fighting" in the American Revolution ended in Virginia with the Battle of Yorktown, September 28th to October 19, 1781; where General George Washington defeated the army of Lord Cornwallis, bringing victory to the Americans and an end to the Revolutionary War.

The years between saw many battles in the Hudson River Valley that served as a strategic area of defense for the American revolutionaries. The Hudson River, a highway between revolutionary forts and encampments in the Hudson Highlands, was used by the British to sail large numbers of British and German (Hessian) troops to attack the American encampments and forts.

The American Revolutionary battles of Fort Montgomery and Fort Clinton on October 6, 1777 were fought early in this long and difficult conflict. Fort Montgomery and Fort Clinton were built on both shores of the Popolopen Creek, which empties into the Hudson River a few miles above the first chain. In a further attempt to stop the British forces from invading and controlling this important waterway, the revolutionary forces "chained" an area of the Hudson south of West Point and north of Bear Mountain in what is known today as the hamlet of Manitou. The Americans placed the first Chain across the Hudson River in an attempt to further support the Hudson Highlands. Later in the war, a second chain that was never tried, was successfully installed further north, at West Point.

Fort Montgomery and Fort Clinton became the battleground of two fierce battles in the American Revolution. On October 6, 1777, approximately 700 American troops, comprised of 300 Continental soldiers, 100 artillerymen and 300 militiamen defended the "twin" forts against 2100 Loyalist, Hessian, and British regulars led by Sir Henry Clinton.

Although these two battles were won by the British; who then destroyed both forts and broke the first chain across the Hudson River; the battles sufficiently delayed British reinforcements from joining Burgoyne in the upper Hudson Valley. This allowed time for the Americans to gain desperately needed militia reinforcements, culminating in the defeat of the British in Saratoga with the surrender of General Burgoyne.

"To aid Lieutenant General John Burgoyne's British army stalled at Saratoga, Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton sailed from New York with 3,000 British, German, and Loyalist soldiers and a flotilla of warships. On the morning of October 6, 1777, Clinton landed 2,100 of his men on the west side of the Hudson River near Stony Point. This force followed a narrow trail through the mountains, where they ran into a party of 30 men sent from Fort Clinton to detect the British advance. After beating the Americans back, Sir Henry Clinton sent 900 men around Bear Mountain to attack Fort Montgomery. The rest would wait to attack Fort Clinton until the first group had reached Fort Montgomery."

On October 19, 1781, the Americans with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come.

Two years later, in September of 1783, after much diplomacy, the Treaty of Paris was signed. Great Britain signed the treaty in which the former 13 colonies were recognized as an independent nation; the United States of America was born.

History of the American Revolution
Following, are brief excerpts about the American War of Independence. These write-ups cover different sources from different periods of time. Each historical write-up focuses on different aspects of the American Revolution.

The following material is sourced from: The Everything American Revolution Book by Daniel P. Murphy, Ph.D. (2008) F+W Publications, Inc., MA.
    "The English colonies were unique in the new World. The Spanish and French colonies were governed by viceroys and governors who reported directly to their monarchs. Spanish and French colonists were unable to develop representative institutions. By contrast, the English colonies were largely self-governing. From an early date, the English colonists were able to establish legislatures that wielded real authority in local matters. This long-established tradition of American political autonomy lay at the heart of the dispute over taxation by the British government following the French and Indian War. . .

    "By seventeenth and eighteenth century standards, the original thirteen colonies were the most democratic polities in the world. The first Virginia House of Burgesses was elected by all males seventeen years of age and older, only later was the vote restricted to landowners. . . On average the property qualification to vote meant possession of fifty acres of land or property valued at 50 pounds sterling. Probably 50 percent of men in the south and 75% of men in the north could vote."

The following material is sourced from Our Country, Published in 1877 as "A Household History of the United States for All Readers," From the Discovery of America to the Present Time. Volume Two, By Benson J. Lossing, LL.D., (3 vols. New York: Johnson & Bailey, 1894)
    Time and Place: 1775, British Ministers in Parliament
    "There was now much fluttering among the ministers. Lord North, to the astonishment of everybody, submitted a sort of conciliatory plan that pleased nobody, yet he adroitly carried it through. Other plans, more favorable to the Americans, were offered and rejected. Franklin's "Hints" had been considered by the ministry, and propositions had been made to him which were so much short of justice that he replied, "While Parliament claims the right of altering American constitutions at pleasure, there can be no agreement, for we are rendered unsafe in English privilege." When it was suggested that an agreement was necessary for America, as it would be "so easy for Britain to burn all their seaport towns," the philosopher answered bravely: "My little property consists of houses in those towns; you may make bonfires of them whenever you please: the fear of losing them will never alter my resolution to resist, to the last, the claim of Parliament.

    "The British government, by its acts, had now virtually declared war against the English-American colonists as rebels. Abandoning all hope of reconciliation, Franklin returned to America in the spring of 1775, and entered vigorously upon the prosecution of the war that soon afterward broke out.

    "In the early part of 1775, the British government had proclaimed Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion. And provided means for suppressing that rebellion by force of arms. The fulmination of wrathful threats against that province was intended for the ears of her sister colonies, as well as for her own. They had interest in common. They were making resistance to oppression in common; and they were resolved to stand united for the common defense. To call Massachusetts a 'rebel,' was to call all the other colonies 'rebels.' So they all felt. Joseph Hawley had said in Massachusetts, when viewing the impending crisis: 'We must fight!' Patrick Henry, in Virginia, answered 'Amen!' with vehemence; and these words from the head and heart of resistance to oppression, were echoed back from all the provinces in the early part of 1775. For ten years the people of those provinces had pleaded, remonstrated, and worked in vain endeavors to obtain justice for themselves and their posterity . . . . At length the united colonies came to the solemn conclusion - 'We must fight,' and prepared for the dire necessity. The war for independence that ensued was not a war of revolution on the part of the Americans. It was a war by the Americans against the arch revolutionist King George and his ministers - a war by the Americans for the defense of their liberties and free institutions which the government of Great Britain sought to destroy."

The following material is sourced from:
Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia, http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2009
    "In the fall of 1775 the British government decided to use overwhelming military force to crush the American revolt. The task looked easy. England, Wales, and Scotland had a combined population of about 9 million, compared with 2.5 million in the 13 rebel colonies, nearly 20 percent of whom were black slaves. Militarily, Britain was clearly superior, with a large standing army and the financial resources to hire additional troops, and the most powerful navy in the world. The British government also counted on mobilizing thousands of Loyalists in America and Native Americans who were hostile to white expansion.

    "Nonetheless, the Americans had a number of important advantages. They were fighting on their own territory, close to the sources of supply and amid a mostly friendly population. In addition, the Patriots had some resourceful military leaders, who had been tested in the French and Indian War. Finally, later in the war, the rebellious colonies received crucial aid from France and Spain. This assistance offset British superiority in wealth and military power, and made possible a clear-cut American victory. However, few of these American advantages were obvious when the war began.

    "Throughout the war, one of the main challenges facing the Americans was maintaining a credible army. Washington’s main Continental Army never had more than 24,000 active-duty troops, although Congress promised to raise a force at least three times that size. In addition, the army was poorly supplied and short on weapons and food. Early in the war General Philip Schuyler of New York complained that his men were “weak in numbers, dispirited, naked, destitute of provisions, without camp equipage, with little ammunition, and not a single piece of cannon.” The situation did not improve during the course of the war. Because of the meager financial support provided by Congress and the American people, the Continental Army almost perished from hunger and cold during the winters of 1777 and 1778. Inadequate pay prompted mutinies in the ranks and in the officer corps as late as 1783. The Continental Army had to struggle to survive during the entire war.

    "If inadequate support was one weakness of the Continental Army, its composition was another. The army was a new creation, without tradition or even military experience. Trained militiamen wanted to serve in local units near their farms and families, so raw recruits formed the basis of the Continental forces. Muster rolls for troops commanded by General William Smallwood of Maryland show that they were either poor American-born youths or older foreign-born men, often former indentured servants. Some of these men enlisted out of patriotic fervor; many more signed up to receive a cash bonus and the promise of a future land grant.

    "It took time to turn such men into loyal soldiers. Many panicked in the heat of battle. Others deserted, unwilling to accept the discipline of military life. Given this weak army, Washington worried constantly that he would suffer an overwhelming defeat.

    "In total, the war lasted for eight years and had four phases, each with a distinct strategy and character. During the first phase, from April 1775 to July 1776, the Patriots’ goal was to turn the revolt into an organized rebellion, while British governors and armed Loyalists tried to suppress the uprising. The second phase of the war began with a major British invasion of New York in July 1776 and ended with the American victory at Saratoga in October 1777. The British strategy was to confront and defeat the Continental Army and to isolate the radical Patriots of New England. Washington’s goal was to protect his weak forces by retreat and, when he held the advantage, to counterattack. During the third phase of the war Britain tried to subdue the South. Beginning in early 1778 it used regular troops to take territory and local Loyalists to hold it. Patriots used guerrilla warfare to weaken British forces, and then used French assistance to win a major victory at Yorktown, Virginia, in October 1781. Then came the final phase of the war when astute Patriot diplomacy won a treaty recognizing the independence of the United States in September 1783."

Sources
The Everything American Revolution Book by Daniel P. Murphy, Ph.D. (2008) F+W Publications, Inc., MA.

Our Country, Published in 1877 as "A Household History of the United States for All Readers," From the Discovery of America to the Present Time. Volume Two, By Benson J. Lossing, LL.D., (3 vols. New York: Johnson & Bailey, 1894)

The American Revolution: First Phase, Extracted from: American Military History, Center of Military History, United States Army, Washington, DC 1989

The Winning of Independence, 1777-1783, Extracted from: American Military History, Center of Military History, United States Army, Washington, DC 1989

Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia, http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2009




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